Design, Efficiency and Influence of a Multiple-Row, Mix-Species Shelterbelt on Wind Speed and Erosion Control in Arid Climate of North Sudan


By M.D. Dafa-Alla, Nawal K.N. Al-Amin.


The study aimed at assessing the design and efficiency of Alhudi shelterbelts in Semi arid zone of Northern Sudan in protecting soil erosion, suppressing moving sand and suggesting a suitable and appropriate shelterbelt design to be applicable in similar conditions at national and regional levels. Alhudi is an irrigated shelterbelt composed of six rows of tree species: Acacia seyal, Acacia ehrenbergiana, Ziziphus spina-christi, Azadirechta indica, Conicarpus lancifolius and Acacia amplicips. Based on shelterbelt configuration two well defined segments on the shelterbelt were recognized (termed belt 1 and belt 11). Wind speeds were measured on windward of both belts during north prevailing wind using CR800 programmable data logger connected to cup anemometer. Vertical measurements were taken at 0.25 and 0.5 h, horizontal measurements were taken at 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 h from the shelterbelt upwind and a control anemometer was placed in an open area for the two levels and distances. Ten-minute average wind speeds were recorded. The measurements were aimed to evaluate the influence of the shelters on capability of wind to erode the soil windward and create dust and sand storm or to reduce the coming winds load capability to deposit its load (sand deposit). The capability of each belt were estimated and predicted by applying a protection efficiency model. Results indicate that species of Acacia ehrenbergiana and Acacia seyal or other species of this family are not suitable for first row of the windward of a shelterbelt. The appropriate shelterbelt design to protect buildings and cultivated fields from sand storm in arid climate of Sudan is recommended to be irrigated, of at least three rows with its height increased from outside to inside, to decrease turbulence. Shelterbelt proper management is crucial for better growth and efficiency


  • Al-Amin, N.K.N., C.J. Stigter, S.B.B. Oteng’i, R.M.R. Kainkwa and L.O.Z. Onyewotu, 2003. Scattered Trees and Wind Protection under African Conditions. In: Ruck, B., C. Kottmeier, C. Mattheck, C. Quine and G. Wilhelm (Eds.), Wind Effects on Trees. University of Karlsruhe, Germany, pp: 73-80.
  • Al-Amin N.K.N., C.J. Stigter and A.E. Mohammed, 2006. Establishment of trees for sand settlement in a completely desertified environment. J. Arid Land Res. Manage., 20(4): 309-327.
  • Al-Amin, N.K.N., C.J. Stigter and A.E. Mohammed, 2010. Wind reduction pattern around isolated biomass for wind-erosion control in desertified area of central Sudan. J. Environ. Earth Sci., 2(4): 226-234.
  • Anderson, D., 1987. The economics of afforestation: A case study in Africa. World Bank Occasional Paper 1 (New Series). Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Bijay, T., G.A. Michael, H.F. Melissa and L.R. Donald, 2009. Windbreak Designs and Planting for Florida Agricultural Fields.FOR227, School of Forest Resources and Conservation Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
  • Bird, P.R., D. Bicknell, P.A. Bulman, S.J.A. Burkie, J.F. Leys, J.N. Parker, F.J. Van Der Sommen and P. Voller, 1992. The role of shelter in Australia for protecting soils, plants and livestock. Agroforest. Syst., 20: 59-86.
  • Ki-Pyo, Y. and K. Young-Moon, 2009. Effect of protection against wind according to the variation porosity of wind fence. Environ. Geol., 56: 1193-1203.
  • Mohammed, A.E., 1991. The influence of An Eucalyptus shelterbelt on sand movements in North-West Gezira, Sudan. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Gezira.
  • Mohammed, A.E., Stigter, C.J. and Adam, H.S., 1996. On shelterbelt design for combating sand invasion. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ., 57, 81-90.
  • Mohammed, A.E., C.J. Stigter and H.S. Adam, 1999. Wind regimes windward of a shelterbelt protecting gravity irrigated crop land from moving sand in the Gezira Scheme (Sudan). Theor. Appl. Climatol., 62: 221-231.
  • Nicholas, I.D., 1988. Plantings in tropical and subtropical areas. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ., 22/23: 265-482.
  • Salih, A.A., 2003. Final report for irrigated shelterbelt at PS 5 and PS 6. Contract Order No. GNPOC/64/0201031. Forest Research Centre, Agricultural Research Corporation, Khartoum, Sudan.
  • Shulin, L., W. Tao, C. Guangting, G. Jian, X. Xian and M. Shaoxiu, 2008. Field investigation of surface sand and dust movement over different sandy grass lands in the Otindag Sandy Land, China. Environ. Geol., 53: 1225-1233.
  • Tibke, G., 1988. Basic principles of wind erosion control. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ., 22/23: 103-122.
  • Washington State University (WSU), 2003. Trees against the wind. A Pacific Northwest Extension Publication. PNW0005, pp: 40.
  • Winpenny, J.T., 1991. Values for the environment. A guide to economic appraisal. Overseas Development Institute, pp: 277.
  • Zhang, H., J.R. Brandle, G.E. Meyer and L. Hodges, 1995. A model to evaluate windbreak protection efficiency. Agroforest. Syst., 29: 191-200.